Cyclones are used as pre-separators for coarse dust particles in order to separate them from the air before they reach the dust collection filters. They operate based on the principles of gravity, inertia, and centrifugal force. They are generally structurally simple, reliable in operation, and have lower purchase and operating costs. However, they are not suitable for fine dust particles. Depending on the type and design of the separator, the separation limit can range from 3 to 100 micrometers. Cyclones are the most effective solutions for capturing, recovering, or removing large and high-volume dust particles. They are suitable and very economical for all types of dust structures and high temperatures due to their purely mechanical nature compared to other high-efficiency filter options. Cyclones can be made from carbon steel, stainless steel, or alloy steel to meet the needs of both standard and specially designed capacities.

In inertial separators, the gas is separated into large particles by appropriately changing the direction of gas flow. In combination with blade separators, droplets are separated in wet mechanical separators or water scrubbers in ventilation systems. Our product, MDSJ Inteko Multi-Cyclone Dust Collector (Multi-Cyclone Separator), works on the same principle as a single-cyclone dust collector that creates dual vortices using inertia and centrifugal force to separate large dust particles from the dust-laden gas. The effectiveness of a cyclone in collecting finer dust is largely determined by the amount of generated centrifugal forces and the extended residence time to allow for more dust to settle. These two factors contribute to better particle separation. The centrifugal force has been increased by reducing the cyclone diameter, and the residence time of the dusty air has been extended by increasing the cone height. In MDSJ multi-cyclones, a large number of smaller and longer cyclones are arranged in parallel to meet the airflow requirements and achieve optimum pressure drop, with all the inlets combined into a common inlet and all the outlets combined into a common outlet. The pressure drop in multi-cyclones is relatively higher than in a single cyclone, but this higher pressure drop provides higher efficiency. Multi-cyclones are typically used for the dynamic cleaning of dust-laden waste gases, such as flue gases, and can capture smaller-sized waste gases. They consist of multiple small cyclones arranged within a square or rectangular cross-section.

MDSJ Multi-Cyclone Dust Collector

For the design of a high-efficiency Multicyclone dust collection system, it depends on factors such as the characteristics of the dust (adhesive, combustible, explosive, abrasive), dust loading and particle size distribution, temperature of the dust-laden air, humidity content, source pressure, etc.

Advantages of Multi-Cyclones

The dust collection efficiency of conventional vertical cyclones is higher and finer compared to larger particles that can be captured. The flue gases generated from the combustion of solid fuels, especially in coal-fired boilers, are highly contaminated due to the ash content and fuel combustion efficiency. To prevent the contamination of fly ash and waste, mechanical multi-cyclones are used, which consist of several small cyclones.

Working Principle of Multi-Cyclones

The gas enters the cyclone through the two inlet pipes at high velocity, and by imparting a helical flow pattern to the gas between the two pipes, the centrifugal force is utilized. The particles lose their inertia due to the sudden change in velocity in the cyclone and are directed towards the walls of the inner pipe, flowing through the inner surface of the outer pipe and into the lower conical collection hopper. The clean gas is discharged from the cyclone through the inner outlet pipe in the center of the cyclone. In cyclones, the accumulated particles due to the centrifugal effect are collected in a shelter under the cyclone, and they can be easily removed by periodically opening the shelter’s bottom cover. The particle sizes that can be captured by multi-cyclones are much smaller than those in traditional cyclones, resulting in higher dust collection efficiency. By using a multi-cyclone configuration, the majority of pollutants and harmful particles in the flue gases are captured (with an efficiency of up to 98%), providing protection against the harmful effects of the working and environmental flue gases.

Vortex Cyclone

The most commonly used dry mechanical separators include vortex (cyclone) separators. A vortex separator is based on a vortex (whirlpool) element. As the volumetric flow rate along the cell increases, resulting in the rotation of the gas within the cell, the separation limit decreases and the overall separation improves. However, this rule only applies to a limited extent, and at very high volumetric flow rates, an axial vortex can reach the chamber that collects previously separated particles, depending on the throw opening in the conical section of the cell. In light of this, the separator should be operated only within a limited volume flow range; otherwise, the centrifugal force effect is low at low flow rates. The pressure loss of such cyclones in the optimum regime reaches actual values between 600 and 1000 Pa. Cyclones can be arranged in single or multiple combinations.

Multi-Cyclone Application Areas